Assessment of the selected POPs (PCBs, PCDDs/Fs, OCPs) in the atmosphere and water ecosystems from the waste materials generated by warfare in former Yugoslavia

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WP2: The level and hydrogeological fate of some POPs in several Croatian, Bosnian & Herzegovina and Kosovo areas as a consequence of war damages


There are two main objectives in this work package.

1) To collect data not only about levels of PCBs but also other even more dangerous POPs the first in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo district, because in these areas practically any reliable data about pollution environment by PCBs not only after but also before the war.

2) Much better understanding the hydrological fate of PCBs and other POPs compounds in the most threatened areas of Middle Dalmatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina polluted with the POPs. Special attention will be paid for karstic part of these areas.

Methodology and study materials

Collecting data about possibilities of PCBs spills in the environment during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1992 - 1995 and Kosovo 1999 was the basic task for partner GEOSURV in Bosnia and Herzegovina and UNISPRIS.FS.DC in Kosovo. Requests for data on oil with PCBs spills in the environment in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo were performed from various State, Entities and Cantonal institutions as they are Ministries, Directions, Inspectorates, Health institutes, Institutes, Faculties, Chambers, Offices and especially from Public Enterprises.  Special attention have been paid to vulnerable karstic areas in Bosnian high mountains where there were damaged and destroyed military communicative relays with facilities with pyralene and all other places where E.T.S. or other industrial objects were destroyed which could be source of very dangerous various persistent organic pollutants.

During 1996, waste oil and soil samples near damaged transformer stations were collected in the Delnice, Zadar, Šibenik, Split and Dubrovnik areas and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls by partner RBIZ.CMR. Results of the analysis of the polychlorinated biphenyls in the soil from the four locations (in some locations, at two depths) indicate significant contamination of the area of the 110/35 kV Electro Transformer Station Zadar. This was the reason for a thorough investigation of this site for PCB levels in the soil samples around the damaged capacitor. Analysis of PCBs were performed by RBIZ.CMR and UBEG.FMG.IH.

Hydrogeological recognition in the fieldwork of Zadar area will be performed (IGEO.DHG) on the topographic basis scale 1:5000. Collected relevant data of geological, structural and hydrogeological features (function of the rock) will be presented on the map Annexe).

UMB in the sea discharging karst springs (SE Zadar area, Dalmatia) have been mapped and measured (discharge, temp., el. conductivity) twice during wet (March) and dry season (August) in co-operation with subcontractor IGEO.DHG. On the major spring (Vruljica Spring, Zadar, Dalmatia) a water sample was hydrochemical characterised and the suspended matter collection (1.5 mg/l) was tested with teflon filtering equipment during high discharge (220 l/s) in March 2003.

Progress during the first reporting period

None of above-mentioned institutions from Bosnia & Herzegovina had any reliable data on the damaged and destroyed electro transformer stations with PCBs leakage (except 2 units in EP BiH) from them and there were no analyses of any samples to PCBs within BiH institutions. However, most of the transformers in ownership of EP BIH and EP HZHB did not contain the oils with PCBs. The damaged stations with oil leakage into the environment are as follows: 1) 282 damaged ETS in EP BiH, 2) 181 damaged ETS in EP HZHB, 3) 7 TV relays, 4) 8 electro transformers in factory Vogošća near Sarajevo, 5) capacitors in coal mines in surrounding of Tuzla and 6) military relays in high Bosnian mountains. Selection of  transformer stations with oil leakage with PCBs into the environment for further investigations are: 1) ETS in EP BiH, 2) Capacitors in Coal mines and 3) Military relays locations of ex Yugoslav Army on peaks of Bosnian mountains.

After the hard engagement in the collaboration with local authorities and partially in the conversation with responsible persons in majority the current trafo-facilities UNIPRIS.FS.DC collaborators have come to the conclusion that the potential places for the soil sampling would be:

Factories of Plastics in Pristine; Trafo-plant "Velanija" in Pristina; Trafo-plant by Ajvalije - surroundings of Pristina; Thermoelectric power plant in Obilić by Pristina; Trafo-plant - Djakovica; Trafo-plant in Skenderaj and Trafo-plant in Prizren. This list is for orientation purposes and during the work it will be modified in the dependence of new understandings. Of course if we establish in further activities more suspicious places we will include them in the deliberation for the sampling.

The soil sample points at the Zadar transformer station are present in Figure 1(Annexe). One square = 1 m2: 0 is the zero point for the presentation in Figure 2; K1, K2 and K3 are capacitors; black square = samples sampled in August and October 1996; grey square = soil samples sampled in July 2001; only numbers = soil samples sampled in May 2002. The K1 capacitor was damaged during the war from an air attack in 1991.  A soil sample from the hole under the K1 capacitor was collected in November 2002.

The position of sampling under the capacitors and slide soil layer and wiping by cotton wool is present on Figure 2 Annexe). The dispersion of the PCB levels in the soil samples around the damaged capacitor is presented in Figure 3 and 4 (Annexe). In Figure 3, all the data are presented and we can see the very high PCB level in the sample collected from the hole situated just under the damaged capacitor. For a better presentation of the dispersion levels of the other soil samples, the PCB levels of the soil samples without the sample from the previously mentioned hole are presented in Figure 4. Level of PCBs in samples collected from slide soil layer and wiping by cotton wool is present on Figure 5 (Annexe).

Hydrogeological recognition in the fieldwork will be performed on the topographic basis scale 1:5000. Collected relevant data of geological, structural and hydrogeological features (function of the rock) was presented on the map (Annexe). Analysis of satellite images provided information about lithological, structural, and morphological, land use - vegetation and urbanising setting of the area. Collecting the data about potential and active sources of PCB and other contaminants, structuring the data, land use and hazard mapping.

The level and hydrogeological fate of some POPs in several Croatian, Bosnian & Herzegovina and Kosovo areas as a consequence of war damages


Deliverable 5: Data about suspicious sources of POPs pollution on various sites in continental Croatia, Bosnia& Herzegovina and Kosovo

Deliverable 6: Data about ground or other part of ecosystem significantly polluted with investigated POPs especially with PCBs

Deliverable 8: Results of detailed study of the geochemical, behaviour of PCB and other contaminants in soils, unsaturated and saturated zones of karst aquifer as well as knowledge about soils and karst aquifer will give us an opportunity for proper evaluation of pollution groundwater and land with POPs in the investigated area. Significantly polluted with PCBs in karstic region of Middle Dalmatia in Croatia


Milestone 2: Data collection and POPs monitoring in soil and water environment of Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina and Kosovo endangered with war wastes.

Expected results

Number of sites in Bosnia & Herzegovina and Kosovo with suspicious of PCB contamination were found. 3 waste samples, 19 soil and cotton wool wiped samples, 28 sediment samples and 10 biota samples from Zadar and Rijeka Dubrovačka have been collected and analysed for level of PCBs and chlorinated insecticides. Total organic carbon analysis in 14 soil and 11 sediment samples were also performed. Inside hydrogeological investigation it was next done: 1.Hydrogeological map of Zadar town area, scale 1:25 000, draft version, 2.Structuring the database of the hydrogeological data in GIS form, 3. Satelite images analyses, 4.Land use map, draft version in GIS, 5.Beginning the structuring the data base of hazards, 6.Selection of 5 locations for further hydro chemical and isotope monitoring (Vruljica spring, B-4 Bokanjac, Sv. Jelena spring, Arbanasi outflow zone, Čatrnja dug well).



Plans for the next year

In Bosnia & Herzegovina cca 50 soil and sediment samples are planned to collect from several areas of military relays in high mountains in BiH and analysis some POPs will be performed. In Rijeka Dubrovacka and Zadar will be collected about hundred soil, sediment and biota samples and analysis of some POPs will be performed. Necessary information about the geometry of the investigated area, preferential flow paths and outflow locations, land use and hazard points will be collected. All these results will serve as a base for further vulnerability assessment.

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